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20/07/2011 2011/223 Press release- ESMA consults on systems and controls for highly automated trading , Press Release PDF
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03/11/2011 JC 2011/094 Press release- ESMA, EBA and EIOPA appoint members of Joint Board of Appeal , , Press Release PDF
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09/12/2011 2011/431 Global regulators discuss OTC derivatives regulation , Press Release PDF
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Leaders and senior representatives of the authorities responsible for the regulation of the over-the-counter (OTC) derivatives markets in Canada, the European Union, Hong Kong, Japan, Singapore and the United Statesmet met yesterday in Paris.  
22/12/2011 2011/457 ESMA outlines future automated trading regime for trading platforms, investment firms and competent authorities , Press Release PDF
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24/02/2012 2012/128 ESMA readies guidelines on automated trading – application deadline starts , Press Release PDF
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ESMA today publishes the official translations of its final “Guidelines on systems and controls in an automated trading environment for trading platforms, investment firms and competent authorities” (ESMA/2011/456), first published on 21 December 2011. High Frequency Trading (HFT) is one form of automated trading.   By having translated the guidelines into all the official languages of the EU, today’s publication triggers a transitional period of two months within which national supervisors have to declare whether they intend to comply with the guidelines or otherwise explain the reasons for non-compliance which would be made public by ESMA. According to the ESMA Regulation national supervisors have to make every effort to comply with the Guidelines.
11/04/2012 JC/2012/30 EBA, ESMA and EIOPA publish two reports on Money Laundering , Press Release PDF
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31/08/2012 JC/2012/70 ESAs consult on the application of the capital calculation methods for financial conglomerates , Press Release PDF
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12/04/2013 2013-04-12 JC Report on Risks and Vulnerabilities in the European Union’s (EU) Financial System Press Release PDF
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  The Joint Committee of the European Supervisory Authorities (Joint Committee) has published today its first Report on Risks and Vulnerabilities in the European Union’s (EU) Financial System. Joint Committee of the European Supervisory Authorities calls for action on cross-sectoral risks. • First report by the Joint Committee of the European Supervisory Authorities (ESAs) on cross-sectoral risks facing the EU financial system; • Key risks facing EU financial markets include weak macroeconomic outlook; low interest rate environment; risk of further fragmentation on the single market; increased reliance on collateral; the quality of financial institutions’ assets; lack of confidence in financial institutions’ balance sheet valuations and risk disclosure; loss of confidence in financial benchmarks; • The ESAs have closely monitored the situation in Cyprus as it has developed. The events will lead to losses throughout the financial sector in Cyprus. However, the risks of direct international contagion seem to be limited.
29/07/2013 JC 2013/02 Joint Committee Draft Regulatory Technical Standards Press Release PDF
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EBA, EIOPA and ESMA publish RTS on the consistent application of calculation methods under the Financial Conglomerates Directive The Joint Committee of the three European Supervisory Authorities (EBA, EIOPA and ESMA) has published its draft Regulatory Technical Standards (RTS) on the consistent application of the calculation methods described in the Financial Conglomerates Directive (FICOD) covering the assessment of the financial situation of credit institutions, insurance undertakings and investment firms which are part of a financial conglomerate. These RTS define the appropriate application of calculation methods for the determination of required capital at the financial conglomerate level. Their underlying principles are to eliminate multiple gearing and intra-group creation of own funds, transferability and availability of own funds and to cover deficit at financial conglomerate level having regard to definition of cross-sector capital. Based on the technical calculation methods provided in the FICOD, the RTS aim at harmonising the use of the calculation methods, by applying these principles and specifying which sectoral rules comprise sectoral own funds and solvency requirements in order to ensure a consistent approach in the calculations is applied across different financial conglomerates.   Legal basis These draft regulatory technical standards (RTS) have been developed in accordance with the mandate contained in Article 49(6) of the Regulation (EU) No 575/2013 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 26 June 2013 (Capital Requirements Regulation or CRR) and Article 150 of Directive 2013/36/EU (Capital Requirements Directive or CRD IV) of the European Parliament and of the Council of 26 June 2013 (amending Article 21a of the Directive 2002/87/EC). These Articles provide that the ESAs, through the Joint Committee, shall develop draft Regulatory Technical Standards (RTS) with regard to the conditions of the application of Article 6(2) of Directive 2002/87/EC.   The Joint Committee The Joint Committee is a forum for cooperation that was established on 1st January 2011, with the goal of strengthening cooperation between the European Banking Authority (EBA), European Securities and Markets Authority (ESMA) and European Insurance and Occupational Pensions Authority (EIOPA), collectively known as the three European Supervisory Authorities (ESAs). Through the Joint Committee, the three ESAs cooperate regularly and closely and ensure consistency in their practices. In particular, the Joint Committee works in the areas of supervision of financial conglomerates, accounting and auditing, micro-prudential analyses of cross-sectoral developments, risks and vulnerabilities for financial stability, retail investment products and measures combating money laundering.   Documents Press Release JC 2013/02 Draft Regulatory Technical Standards JC 2013/01
05/09/2013 2013-09-03 Joint Committee Report on Risks and Vulnerabilities Press Release PDF
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02/04/2014 JC-2014-18 PR Press release- European Supervisory Authorities highlight cross-sectoral risks Press Release PDF
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European Supervisory Authorities highlight cross-sectoral risks The Joint Committee of the European Supervisory Authorities (ESAs) published today its third bi-annual report on risks and vulnerabilities in the European Union's (EU) financial system. The report has identified a number of potential vulnerabilities and cross-sectoral risks to the stability of the European financial system including: weak and uneven economic recovery; uncertain outlook in a number of global emerging economies; asset price imbalances and risks of a sharp adjustment; increased search for yield in a protracted low interest rate environment; conduct of business risks; IT-related operational risks. Andrea Enria, Chairman of the EBA and current Chairman of the Joint Committee, said: “The cross-sectoral risks identified in this report will help focus the scenarios of the stress tests for banks and insurance companies. Concerns about conduct of business are growing and will also require more coordinated attention by the three ESAs”. The report highlights a fragile economic outlook in a number of EU Member States, with uncertainties about asset quality in the banking sector as well as in other institutional investor segments, and reduced growth potential in the insurance sector Moreover, concerns have also emerged in relation to the uncertain political and economic outlook in a number of global emerging economies and, more recently, to the evolving situation in Ukraine and Russia, which may impact the EU through direct and indirect transmission channels, as well as expose institutions to FX risks. In addition, the report focuses on risks associated with search for yield behaviour, which is incentivised by a low interest rate environment. Such behaviour has intensified concerns related to the build-up of imbalances and exacerbated risks linked to sudden interest rate changes, which may result in a disorderly unwinding of financial positions. Furthermore, the report highlights risks linked to the conduct of business and points to series of cases related to financial institutions’ conduct of business, which risk undermining public confidence in financial institutions and markets and which have been associated with significant redress costs. In the report the ESAs recommend supervisors to place greater emphasis on management bodies’ responsibilities to address conduct risks and ensure the appropriate protection of consumers and investors. Notes for editors The Joint Committee is a forum for cooperation that was established on 1st January 2011, with the goal of strengthening cooperation between the European Banking Authority (EBA), European Securities and Markets Authority (ESMA) and European Insurance and Occupational Pensions Authority (EIOPA), collectively known as the three European Supervisory Authorities (ESAs). Through the Joint Committee, the three ESAs cooperate regularly and closely and ensure consistency in their practices. In particular, the Joint Committee works in the areas of supervision of financial conglomerates, accounting and auditing, micro-prudential analyses of cross-sectoral developments, risks and vulnerabilities for financial stability, retail investment products and measures combating money laundering. In addition to being a forum for cooperation, the Joint Committee also plays an important role in the exchange of information with the European Systemic Risk Board (ESRB). The full text of the report can be viewed here: Report – April 2014
22/05/2014 2014/557 ESMA consults on MiFID reforms , , Press Release PDF
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The European Securities and Markets Authority (ESMA) has launched the consultation process for the implementation of the revised Markets in Financial Instruments Directive (MiFID II) and Regulation (MiFIR). This is the first step in the process of translating the MiFID II/MiFIR requirements into practically applicable rules and regulations to address the effects of the financial crisis and to improve financial market transparency and strengthen investor protection.MiFID II/MiFIR introduces changes that will have a large impact on the EU’s financial markets, these include transparency requirements for a broader range of asset classes; the obligation to trade derivatives on-exchange; requirements on algorithmic and high-frequency-trading and new supervisory tools for commodity derivatives. It will also strengthen protection for retail investors through limits on the use of commissions; conditions for the provision of independent investment advice; stricter organisational requirements for product design and distribution; product intervention powers; and the disclosure of costs and charges.MiFID II/MiFIR contains over 100 requirements for ESMA to draft Regulatory Technical Standards (RTS) and Implementing Technical Standards (ITS), and to provide Technical Advice to the European Commission to allow it to adopt delegated acts. In order to ensure that MIFID II achieves its objectives in practice, ESMA is publishing the following documents:1.    Consultation Paper on MiFID/MiFIR Technical Advice – ESMA needs to deliver this advice to the European Commission by December 2014 and is therefore subject to a condensed consultation process for this paper; and2.    Discussion Paper on MiFID/MiFIR draft RTS/ITS – this will provide the basis for a further consultation paper on the draft RTS/ITS which is expected to be issued in late 2014/early 2015. The closing date for responses to both papers is Friday 1 August. Steven Maijoor, ESMA Chair, said:“The launch of today’s MiFID II/MiFIR consultation process is an important step in the biggest overhaul of financial markets regulation in the EU for a decade. The reform of MiFID is an integral part of the EU’s strategy to address the effects of the financial crisis and aims to bring greater transparency to markets and to strengthen investor protection. These changes are key to restoring trust in our financial markets.“We appreciate the magnitude of this exercise for stakeholders. We strongly encourage all those affected by these reforms to provide their views to ensure that we take them into account in our final proposals.”The main issues covered in the Discussion and Consultation Paper are divided into those addressing the structure, transparency and regulation of financial markets, and those aimed at strengthening investor protection.Financial Markets Structure, Transparency and RegulationThe main proposals in this area cover the following issues: enhanced transparency and trading obligations - increasing pre- and post-trade transparency for many categories of instruments, e.g. shares, ETFs, certificates, bonds and derivatives, limitations to trade shares OTC and new obligations to trade derivatives on trading venues; micro-structural issues – refining the definition of high frequency trading and direct electronic access and specifying the requirements for operating in the market using algorithmic techniques; data publication and access – issues related to the development of the consolidated tape including requirements for tape providers, approved publication arrangements and reporting mechanisms, and the definition of a reasonable commercial basis for data sales; and the access to CCPs,  trading venues and benchmarks; other organisational requirements for trading venues; and commodity derivatives – new regulatory tools, including position limits. Investor ProtectionThe main proposals relating to the improved protection of retail investors include technical advice on: inducements – new limitations on the receipt of commissions (inducements); independent advice – clearly distinguishing independent from non-independent advice; product governance – requirements on the manufacture and distribution of financial products including target market and risk identification; product intervention/banning - introducing powers for both ESMA and national regulators to prohibit or restrict the marketing and distribution of certain financial instruments; and improved information on costs and charges – requirements to provide clients with details of all charges related to their investment (relating to both the investment service and the financial instrument provided) so they can understand the overall cost and its effect on their investment’s return. In addition, the draft regulatory technical standards in the investor protection area relate to the authorisation of investment firms, passporting, and certain best execution obligations.Next StepsESMA will hold three public hearings about secondary markets, investor protection and commodity derivatives issues on Monday 7 and Tuesday 8 July. Further details on the hearings will be published on ESMA’s website. 2014/548 2014/549
24/07/2014 2014/61 EBA, ESMA and EIOPA consult on technical standards for financial conglomerates risk concentration and intra-group transactions , Press Release PDF
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The Joint Committee of the three European Supervisory Authorities (ESAs - EBA, ESMA and EIOPA) launched today a consultation on draft Regulatory Technical Standards (RTS) on risk concentration and intra-group transactions within financial conglomerates. The technical standards aim at enhancing supervisory consistency in the application of the Financial Conglomerates Directive (FICOD). The consultation runs until 24 October 2014. The objective of the draft RTS is to clarify which risk concentrations and intra-group transactions within a financial conglomerate should be considered as significant. In addition, the RTS provide some supervisory measures for coordinators and other relevant competent authorities when identifying types of significant risk concentration and intra-group transactions, their associated thresholds and reports, where appropriate. The consultation paper is available on the websites of the three ESAs: EBA, ESMA and EIOPA. Comments to this consultation paper can be sent to the Joint Committee. Legal background The three ESAs have developed these RTS in accordance with Article 21a (1a) of Directive 2002/87/EC (FICOD), which mandates the three ESAs, through the Joint Committee, to develop RTS to clarify the definitions on risk concentration and intra-group transactions provided in Article 2 of the FICOD and to coordinate the provisions laid down in Articles 7 and 8 and Annex II.
31/07/2014 JC/2014/062 Annex (Press Release) The Joint Committee of the ESAs remind financial institutions of their responsibilities when placing their own financial products with consumers , Press Release PDF
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The Joint Committee of the ESAs reminds financial institutions of their responsibilities when placing their own financial products with consumers. ESMA underlines risks from investing in contingent convertible instruments (CoCos). The Joint Committee of the European Supervisory Authorities (EBA, EIOPA and ESMA) published a reminder to banks and insurance companies across the EU on the consumer protection requirements that apply to certain financial instruments they issue. In addition, ESMA highlighted specific risks posed to investors by contingent convertible instruments (CoCos).
22/09/2014 2014-063 (Annex) EU Supervisory Authorities update on risks in EU financial system , Press Release PDF
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The Joint Committee of the European Supervisory Authorities (ESAs) published today its bi-annual report on risks and vulnerabilities in the European Union's (EU) financial system. The report identifies a number of risks to financial stability in the EU, including prolonged weak economic growth in an environment characterised by high indebtedness, intensified search for yield in a protracted low interest rate environment, and uncertainties in global emerging market economies. The report also highlights risks related to conduct of business and Information Technologies (IT). Press Queries - European Banking Authority Press Office +44 (0) 207 382 1772 or press@eba.europa.eu
19/12/2014 2014/1574 ESMA provides implementing rules for MiFID II , , Press Release PDF
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The European Securities and Markets Authority (ESMA) has published today its final technical advice (TA) and launches a consultation on its draft regulatory technical and implementing standards (RTS/ ITS) regarding the implementation of the Markets in Financial Instruments Directive (MiFID II) and Regulation (MiFIR). Both ESMA’s TA and draft RTS translate the MiFID II/MiFIR requirements into practically applicable rules for market participants and national supervisors. The new regulatory framework aims at ensuring that secondary markets are fair, transparent and safe and that investors’ interests are safeguarded when being sold investment products. Steven Maijoor, ESMA Chair, said:“Today’s implementing rules on both secondary markets and investor protection issues reflect ESMA’s desire to achieve the best outcome for market users and investors, taking into account the extensive submissions received from our stakeholders. The advice now goes to the European Commission to use in preparation of its delegated legislation, while our technical standards are open for a second round of consultation. “Once fully implemented, MiFID II will have a significant impact on the EU’s securities markets, its users and infrastructure providers. It will bring greater transparency and improve the overall functioning of markets thus strengthening investors’ trust in the financial sector.”MiFID II to include most financial instruments, trading venues and techniquesMiFID II/MiFIR introduces changes to the functioning of secondary markets, including transparency requirements for a broad range of asset classes; the obligation to trade derivatives on trading venues; requirements for algorithmic and high-frequency-trading and new supervisory tools for commodity derivatives. The key proposals stemming from ESMA’s TA/draft RTS cover the following issues: •    increased trade transparency, for non-equity instruments, in particular bonds, derivatives, structured finance products and emission allowances;•    a trading obligation for shares and a double volume cap mechanism for shares and equity-like instruments, introducing a major change to the framework for trading these instruments in the Union;•    an obligation to trade derivatives on MiFID venues (regulated markets, multilateral (MTFs) or organised trading facilities (OTFs)) only, in line with G20 requirements;•    newly introduced position limits and reporting requirements for commodity derivatives;•    rules governing high frequency trading, imposing a strict set of organisational requirements on investment firms and trading venues;•    provisions regulating access to central counterparties (CCPs), trading venues and benchmarks, designed to increase competition in the Union; and•    requirements for a consolidated tape of trading data, including rules for tape providers, reporting,  publication and sales of data.MiFID II to improve investor protection ESMA’s TA proposes that the Commission adopts a number of measures that will further the protection of investors across the EU. The main proposals relating to the improved protection of investors, especially retail, include:•    clarifications about the circumstances in which portfolio managers can receive research from third parties;•    clarifications under which circumstances inducements meet the quality enhancement requirement for the provision of advice;•    requirements for investment firms manufacturing and/or distributing financial instruments and structured deposits to have product governance arrangements in place in order to assess the robustness of their manufacture and/or distribution;•    requirements for firms to provide clients with details of all costs and charges related to their investment, including cost aggregations, the timing of disclosure (ex-ante and ex-post); information to non-retail clients; the scope of firms subject to this obligation; information on the cumulative effect of costs on the return; •    organisational requirements for firms providing investments advice on an independent basis; and•    specification of powers for ESMA and national regulators with regards to prohibiting or restricting the marketing and distribution of financial instruments. Next stepsThe TA has been finalised following extensive consultations with stakeholders and will now be sent to the European Commission. ESMA’s draft RTS/ITS, already previously consulted upon, are open for public comment until 2 March 2015. In addition, an open hearing will be held in Paris on 19 February 2015. ESMA will use the input received from the consultations to finalise its draft RTS which will be sent for endorsement to the European Commission by mid-2015, its ITS by January 2016. MiFID II/ MiFIR and its implementing measures will be applicable from 3 January 2017.
22/12/2014 JC/2014/63 European Supervisory Authorities publish final Guidelines on consistency of supervisory practices for financial conglomerates , Press Release PDF
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The Joint Committee of the three European Supervisory Authorities (ESAs - EBA, ESMA and EIOPA) published today the Joint Guidelines on the convergence of practices aimed at ensuring consistency of supervisory coordination arrangements for financial conglomerates. The first Guidelines developed jointly by the three ESAs in relation to the FICOD (Financial Conglomerates Directive) aim to clarify and enhance cooperation between national competent authorities on cross-border groups that have been identified as financial conglomerates. The Joint Guidelines focus on how authorities should cooperate in order to achieve a supplementary level of supervision of financial conglomerates. This will serve the purpose of addressing loopholes in present legislation, as prescribed by the FICOD. The Joint Guidelines should also enhance the level playing field in the financial market and reduce administrative burdens for firms and supervisory authorities. The areas covered by the Joint Guidelines include in particular the mapping of the financial conglomerate structure and written agreements; the coordination of information exchange, supervisory planning and coordination of supervisory activities in going concern and emergency situations; the supervisory assessment of financial conglomerates; and other decision-making processes among the competent authorities. The Joint Guidelines apply from 23 February 2015. Legal background The Joint Guidelines have been developed in accordance with Article 11 (1) paragraph 3 of Directive 2002/87/EC (Financial Conglomerates Directive), which mandates the ESAs, to develop, through the Joint Committee, guidelines to achieve convergence of supervisory practices relating to the consistency of supervisory coordination arrangements in accordance with Article 116 of Directive 2013/36/EU and Article 248(4) of Directive 2009/138/EC. Joint Committee The Joint Committee is a forum for cooperation that was established on 1st January 2011, with the goal of strengthening cooperation between the three ESAs. Through the Joint Committee, the three ESAs cooperate regularly and closely and ensure consistency in their practices. In particular, the Joint Committee works in the areas of supervision of financial conglomerates, accounting and auditing, micro-prudential analyses of cross-sectoral developments, risks and vulnerabilities for financial stability, retail investment products and measures combating money laundering.
01/04/2015 2015/674 Press release- ESMA launches centralised data projects for MiFIR and EMIR , Press Release PDF
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05/05/2015 JC/2015/02 ESAs- main risks to EU financial market stability have intensified , , Press Release PDF
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The Joint Committee of the European Supervisory Authorities (ESAs) published its fifth Report on Risks and Vulnerabilities in the EU Financial System. Overall, the report found that in the past six months, risks affecting the EU financial system have not changed in substance, but have further intensified. The EU’s economic performance improved slightly in early 2015, however the financial sector in general continues to be affected by a combination of factors such as low investment demand, economic uncertainty in the Eurozone and its neighbouring countries, a global economic slow-down and a low-interest rate environment. The main risks affecting the financial system remain broadly unchanged from those identified in the report’s previous edition, but have become more entrenched. The major risks include: • Low growth, low inflation, volatile asset prices and their consequences for financial entities; • Search for yield behaviour exacerbated by potential rebounds; • Deterioration in the conduct of business; and • Increased concern about IT risks and cyber-attacks. Despite these risks, a number of ongoing policy and regulatory initiatives are contributing to improving the stability and confidence in the financial system as well as facilitating additional funding channels to the real economy. These include ongoing regulatory reforms in the securities, banking and insurance sectors such as the Markets in Financial Instruments Directive (MiFID II) and Regulation (MiFIR), the work on the implementation of the Capital Requirements Directive and Regulation (CRDIV/CRR), the work on the Bank Recovery and Resolution Directive (BRRD), the Deposit-Guarantee Schemes Directive (DGS) and the Solvency II Directive, as well as the European Commission’s plan for a Capital Markets Union (CMU). Steven Maijoor, Chair of the European Securities and Markets Authority (ESMA) and the current Chairman of the Joint Committee, said: “The Joint Committee has noted some improvement in overall market conditions; however, the recovery is not yet sustained and is exposed to risks related to broad macroeconomic conditions, in particular the low interest environment and resulting search-for-yield behaviour. Additionally regulators continue to have concerns about the operational risks generated by some financial institutions’ inappropriate business conduct, as well as those risks posed by inadequate management of IT risks. “However, recent regulatory initiatives across the banking, insurance and securities sectors, such as the Comprehensive Assessment, the insurance sector stress test and Solvency II along with, the ongoing MiFID, EMIR and PRIPS reforms are contributing to improving the stability and confidence in the EU financial system." Key Risks Identified The identified risks in the Report can be divided into macro risks to the EU financial system and economy and operational risks. Macro Risks The key macro risks identified relate to: 1. Risks from weak economic growth and low inflation environment, which include: • Adverse effect that low interest rates and uncertainties about the economic recovery have had on the outlook for the financial industry; • Higher valuation and market liquidity risk has raised concerns about the outlook for financial entities’ stability in the event of reversals in interest rates and asset prices; 2. Low profitability is motivating financial institutions and other investors to search for yield, which requires increased supervisory attention to the viability of business models, related restructuring activity and adequate management of risks. However, the promotion of sound and innovative business models for market-based funding structures could help to deliver additional stimulus; and 3. Some continued doubts on the comparability and consistency of banks’ calculations of risk weighted assets. Operational Risks The key operational risks relate to: 4. Business conduct risk remains a key concern with the Report recommending that supervisors should include misconduct costs in future stress tests where appropriate, while financial institutions should strengthening product oversight and governance frameworks. Further improvements in the regulatory framework and supervisory practices to address conduct risks are also warranted. In addition, further progress needs to be made on benchmark reforms where continuity and integrity remain a source of concern even if key panels remained stable; and 5. IT operational risk and cyber risk remain of great concern and pose challenges to the the safety and integrity of financial institutions. IT risk increased due to costs pressures, outsourcing, the need for additional capacities and a mounting number of cyber-attacks. The adequate integration of IT risk into overall risk management is a key policy for mitigation.
12/05/2015 JC/2015/03 Press Release- Joint Committee of ESAs publishes its recommendations on securitisation , Press Release PDF
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The Joint Committee of the three European Supervisory Authorities (ESAs) has published a report detailing its findings and recommendations regarding the disclosure requirements and obligations relating to due diligence, supervisory reporting and retention rules in existing EU law on Structured Finance Instruments (SFIs). In this Report, the Joint Committee is making a series of recommendations which should be considered in light of further work on the transparency requirements of SFIs, and the European Commission public consultation on securitisation. The Report states that these recommendations should not be introduced in isolation and should take into account the already existing requirements for disclosure, due diligence and reporting for comparable instruments.The main recommendations of the report are: - due diligence requirements should be harmonised within the EU;- standardised investor reports should reflect the dynamics of SFIs and be stored in a centralised public space;- all type of investors should be empowered to effectively conduct their own stress tests; and- a harmonised due diligence and disclosure framework should be complemented with  a comprehensive regime for supervision and enforcement. Steven Maijoor, Chair of the European Securities and Markets Authority (ESMA) and current Chairman of the Joint Committee, said: “The proper functioning of the market for securitisations would benefit from the proposed measures aimed at ensuring consistency regarding disclosure and due diligence requirements across existing EU legislation on Structured Finance Instruments. Implementation of these measures, supported by an appropriate supervision and enforcement framework, will contribute to restoring investor confidence in this sector while increasing its efficiency”. Main RecommendationsFollowing a thorough analysis, the Joint Committee is of the opinion that the due diligence requirements should be harmonised across EU sectorial legislation with the common view that, irrespective of the type of investors, due diligence should be seen as a dynamic process which starts with the investment decision and ends when the SFI matures or is divested. In particular, the Joint Committee recommends that investors’ due diligence requirements are reflected in the SFI disclosure requirements.  In addition, the report recommends that investor reports should be standardised and stored in a centralised public space. Measures should be implemented to help investors in conducting effective stress tests on all types of SFIs. An adequate level of transparency should be ensured irrespective of the place where the issuer, originator and sponsor are established and the nature of the SFIs. In order to avoid discrepancies, the Joint Committee also advises to review the use of different definitions and key terms across the relevant sectorial legislation. Finally, the report highlights the necessity of complementing a harmonised due diligence and disclosure framework with a comprehensive framework for supervision and enforcement regarding SFIs.