REFINE YOUR SEARCH
Type of document
|Date||Ref.||Title||Section||Type||Download||Info||Summary||Related Documents||Translated versions|
|28/05/2019||ESMA71-99-1159||ESMA consults on tiering comparable compliance and fees under EMIR 2.2||Post Trading, Press Releases||Press Release||PDF
|28/03/2019||ESMA70-151-1350||Guidelines on position calculation by Trade Repositories under EMIR||Guidelines and Technical standards, Post Trading||Guidelines & Recommendations||PDF
BG - Преводът е предоставен от Центъра за преводи за органите на Европейския съюз.
CS - Tento překlad vypracovalo Překladatelské středisko pro instituce Evropské unie.
DA - Denne oversættelse er udarbejdet af Oversættelsescentret for Den Europæiske Unions Organer.
DE - Die Übersetzung erfolgte durch das Übersetzungszentrum für die Einrichtungen der Europäischen Union.
EL - Η παρούσα μετάφραση έγινε από το Μεταφραστικό Κέντρο των Οργάνων της Ευρωπαϊκής Ένωσης.
ES - Texto traducido por el Centro de Traducción de los Órganos de la Unión Europea.
ET - Selle tõlke tegi Euroopa Liidu Asutuste Tõlkekeskus.
FI - Euroopan unionin elinten käännöskeskus on tehnyt tämän käännöksen.
FR - La présente traduction a été fournie par le Centre de traduction des organes de l’Union européenne.
HR - Za prijevod se pobrinuo Prevoditeljski centar za tijela Europske unije.
HU - Ezt a fordítást az Európai Unió.
IT - La presente traduzione è stata fornita dal Centro di traduzione degli organismi dell’Unione europea.
LT - Šį tekstą išvertė Europos Sąjungos įstaigų vertimo centras.
LV - Šo tulkojumu ir nodrošinājis Eiropas Savienības iestāžu Tulkošanas centrs.
MT - Din it-traduzzjoni ġiet ipprovduta miċ-Ċentru tat-Traduzzjoni għall-Korpi tal-Unjoni Ewropea.
NL - Deze vertaling is verzorgd door het Vertaalbureau voor de organen van de Europese Unie.
PL - Tłumaczenie wykonane przez Centrum Tłumaczeń dla Organów Unii Europejskiej.
PT - Esta tradução foi fornecida pelo Centro de Tradução dos Organismos da União Europeia.
RO - Această traducere a fost asigurată de Centrul de Traduceri pentru Organismele Uniunii Europene.
SK - Preklad vyhotovilo Prekladateľské stredisko pre orgány Európskej únie.
SL - Prevod je zagotovil Prevajalski center za organe Evropske unije.
SV - Den här översättningen har utförts av Översättningscentrum för Europeiska unionens organ.
|09/10/2017||ESMA71-99-613||ESMA highlights importance of LEI for MiFIDII/MiFIR compliance||MiFID - Secondary Markets, Press Releases||Press Release||PDF
The European Securities and Markets Authority (ESMA) has published a Briefing on the Legal Entity Identifier (LEI) as part of its efforts to raise industry awareness and facilitate compliance with the LEI requirements under MiFID II ahead of its 3 January 2018 launch.
ESMA expects market participants to take all necessary steps to ensure full compliance with the LEI requirements under MiFID II. Based on its previous experience with EMIR reporting, ESMA urges reporting entities not to delay in addressing this important matter, as advance preparation will help in avoiding backlogs and ensuring that all market participants are ready for the new regime.
|31/05/2017||ESMA71-99-470||ESMA registers Bloomberg Trade Repository Limited as a trade repository||Press Releases, Trade Repositories||Statement||PDF
The European Securities and Markets Authority (ESMA), the EU supervisor of trade repositories (TRs), has registered Bloomberg Trade Repository Limited as a TR under the European Market Infrastructure Regulation (EMIR), with effect from 7 June 2017. Bloomberg Trade Repository Limited is based in the United Kingdom and covers the following derivative asset classes: commodities, credit, foreign exchange, equities and interest rates.
|30/09/2016||2016/1411||ESMA consults on future reporting rules for securities financing transactions||Post Trading, Press Releases, Securities Financing Transactions||Press Release||PDF
The European Securities and Markets Authority (ESMA) has issued today a consultation paper on draft technical standards implementing the Securities Financing Transaction Regulation (SFTR), which aims to increase the transparency of shadow banking activities. Securities financing transactions (SFTs) are transactions where securities are used to borrow cash (or other higher investment-grade securities), or vice versa – this includes repurchase transactions, securities lending and sell/buy-back transactions.
|26/05/2016||2016/725||Draft RTS on indirect clearing arrangements under EMIR and MiFIR||Guidelines and Technical standards, Post Trading, MiFID - Secondary Markets||Final Report||PDF
|31/03/2016||2016/468||ESMA fines DTCC Derivatives Repository Limited €64,000 for data access failures||Press Releases, Trade Repositories||Press Release||PDF
ESMA fines DTCC Derivatives Repository Limited €64,000 for data access failures
The European Securities and Markets Authority (ESMA) has fined the trade repository DTCC Derivatives Repository Limited (DDRL) €64,000, and issued a public notice, for negligently failing to put in place systems capable of providing regulators with direct and immediate access to derivatives trading data. This is a key requirement under the European Markets and Infrastructure Regulation (EMIR) in order to improve transparency and facilitate the monitoring of systemic risks in derivatives markets.
This is the first time ESMA has taken enforcement action against a trade repository registered in the European Union (EU). DDRL is the largest EU registered trade repository.
ESMA found that DDRL failed to provide direct and immediate access to derivatives data from 21 March 2014 to 15 December 2014, a period of about nine months in which access delays increased from two days to 62 days after reporting and affected 2.6 billion reports. This was due to its negligence in:
DDRL’s failures caused delays to regulators accessing data, revealed systemic weaknesses in its organisation particularly its procedures, management systems or internal controls and negatively impacted the quality of the data it maintained.
|13/08/2015||2015/1260||ESMA recommends changes to EMIR framework||Post Trading, Press Releases||Press Release||PDF
The European Securities and Markets Authority (ESMA) has published four reports focused on how the European Markets Infrastructure Regulation (EMIR) framework has been functioning and providing input and recommendations to the European Commission’s (EC) EMIR Review. Three of the reports are required under Article 85 of EMIR, and cover non-financial counterparties (NFCs), pro-cyclicality and the segregation and portability for CCPs. The fourth report responds to the EC’s Review including recommendations on amending EMIR in relation to the clearing obligation, the recognition of third country CCPs and the supervision and enforcement procedures for trade repositories. Steven Maijoor, ESMA Chair, said: “EMIR is a key component of the EU’s regulatory reform package in response to the financial crisis affecting many elements of OTC derivatives markets. While its implementation is still underway we recommend a number of changes, based on our experiences, to improve and streamline the regulatory and supervisory framework and to ensure that the objectives of stability and investor protection are met.” ESMA’s Response to European Commission EMIR Review This report provides input to the EC’s consultation on the EMIR review with recommendations to amend the EMIR framework in a number of areas including: • Clearing obligation - in order to strengthen the EMIR framework and to better respond to changing market conditions, ESMA proposes amending EMIR in order to streamline the process for determining clearing obligations and to introduce tools allowing the suspension of the clearing obligation when certain market conditions arise. It also proposes removing the frontloading requirement; • Recognition of third country CCPs - regarding the recognition of third-country CCPs, ESMA is proposing to rethink the entire equivalence and recognition process to increase its efficiency and effectiveness and to better respond to regulatory differences between third countries. ESMA proposes that the jurisdiction decision be governed by Regulatory Technical Standards (RTS) and that any recognition process should also include additional risk-based considerations allowing it to deny or suspend the recognition of a third country CCP; and • Trade Repositories (TRs) – in order to improve the supervision of TRs, the report makes proposals for changes to ESMA’s supervisory and enforcement powers and procedures including increases in fine levels, broadening the enforcement decisions available to ESMA, appropriate timeframes to consider applications in the registration process and clarifying TRs’ obligations in relation to data quality and reconciliation and supervisory reporting. ESMA’s Reports under Article 85 of EMIR • Non-Financial counterparties (Report No.1) ESMA recommends removing the hedging criteria from EMIR and to use other measures to determine the systemic relevance of NFCs, as this would allow regulators to identify the few NFCs with the highest systemic importance while greatly simplifying the process and reduce the compliance costs for the majority of small and medium NFCs, which pose limited risks to the system overall. • Limiting Pro-cyclicality (Report No.2) ESMA recommends further specifying the rules for implementing the counter-cyclical tools adopted by CCPs for margins and collateral, including regular testing and transparency on the results to further improve their effectiveness. • Segregation and Portability (Report No.3) ESMA has identified some differences in CCP practices in the implementation of the relevant provisions. In order to promote convergent practices and achieve a level playing field, it recommends introducing clarifications and more detailed requirements by RTS along with incentives related to margin period of risk depending on the safety of the chosen account structure. ESMA also proposes monitoring the take-up of the different types of account models to confirm adequacy and efficiency.
|22/05/2015||2015/884||Press Release- ESMA calls for modification of UCITS Directive||Fund Management, Press Releases||Press Release||PDF
|05/05/2015||JC/2015/02||ESAs- main risks to EU financial market stability have intensified||Risk Analysis & Economics - Markets Infrastructure Investors, Press Releases, Joint Committee||Press Release||PDF
|The Joint Committee of the European Supervisory Authorities (ESAs) published its fifth Report on Risks and Vulnerabilities in the EU Financial System. Overall, the report found that in the past six months, risks affecting the EU financial system have not changed in substance, but have further intensified. The EU’s economic performance improved slightly in early 2015, however the financial sector in general continues to be affected by a combination of factors such as low investment demand, economic uncertainty in the Eurozone and its neighbouring countries, a global economic slow-down and a low-interest rate environment. The main risks affecting the financial system remain broadly unchanged from those identified in the report’s previous edition, but have become more entrenched. The major risks include: • Low growth, low inflation, volatile asset prices and their consequences for financial entities; • Search for yield behaviour exacerbated by potential rebounds; • Deterioration in the conduct of business; and • Increased concern about IT risks and cyber-attacks. Despite these risks, a number of ongoing policy and regulatory initiatives are contributing to improving the stability and confidence in the financial system as well as facilitating additional funding channels to the real economy. These include ongoing regulatory reforms in the securities, banking and insurance sectors such as the Markets in Financial Instruments Directive (MiFID II) and Regulation (MiFIR), the work on the implementation of the Capital Requirements Directive and Regulation (CRDIV/CRR), the work on the Bank Recovery and Resolution Directive (BRRD), the Deposit-Guarantee Schemes Directive (DGS) and the Solvency II Directive, as well as the European Commission’s plan for a Capital Markets Union (CMU). Steven Maijoor, Chair of the European Securities and Markets Authority (ESMA) and the current Chairman of the Joint Committee, said: “The Joint Committee has noted some improvement in overall market conditions; however, the recovery is not yet sustained and is exposed to risks related to broad macroeconomic conditions, in particular the low interest environment and resulting search-for-yield behaviour. Additionally regulators continue to have concerns about the operational risks generated by some financial institutions’ inappropriate business conduct, as well as those risks posed by inadequate management of IT risks. “However, recent regulatory initiatives across the banking, insurance and securities sectors, such as the Comprehensive Assessment, the insurance sector stress test and Solvency II along with, the ongoing MiFID, EMIR and PRIPS reforms are contributing to improving the stability and confidence in the EU financial system." Key Risks Identified The identified risks in the Report can be divided into macro risks to the EU financial system and economy and operational risks. Macro Risks The key macro risks identified relate to: 1. Risks from weak economic growth and low inflation environment, which include: • Adverse effect that low interest rates and uncertainties about the economic recovery have had on the outlook for the financial industry; • Higher valuation and market liquidity risk has raised concerns about the outlook for financial entities’ stability in the event of reversals in interest rates and asset prices; 2. Low profitability is motivating financial institutions and other investors to search for yield, which requires increased supervisory attention to the viability of business models, related restructuring activity and adequate management of risks. However, the promotion of sound and innovative business models for market-based funding structures could help to deliver additional stimulus; and 3. Some continued doubts on the comparability and consistency of banks’ calculations of risk weighted assets. Operational Risks The key operational risks relate to: 4. Business conduct risk remains a key concern with the Report recommending that supervisors should include misconduct costs in future stress tests where appropriate, while financial institutions should strengthening product oversight and governance frameworks. Further improvements in the regulatory framework and supervisory practices to address conduct risks are also warranted. In addition, further progress needs to be made on benchmark reforms where continuity and integrity remain a source of concern even if key panels remained stable; and 5. IT operational risk and cyber risk remain of great concern and pose challenges to the the safety and integrity of financial institutions. IT risk increased due to costs pressures, outsourcing, the need for additional capacities and a mounting number of cyber-attacks. The adequate integration of IT risk into overall risk management is a key policy for mitigation.|
|01/04/2015||2015/674||Press release- ESMA launches centralised data projects for MiFIR and EMIR||MiFID - Secondary Markets, Press Releases||Press Release||PDF
|01/10/2014||2014/1209||Press release- ESMA defines products, counterparties and starting dates for the clearing of interest rate swaps||Post Trading, Press Releases||Press Release||PDF
The European Securities and Markets Authority (ESMA) has today issued final draft regulatory technical standards (RTS) for the central clearing of Interest Rate Swaps (IRS) which it is required to develop under the European Markets Infrastructure Regulation (EMIR). The RTS define those types of IRS contracts which will have to be centrally cleared, the types of counterparties covered by the obligation and the dates by which central clearing of IRS will become mandatory for them.
|05/08/2014||2014/1009||Guidelines and Recommendations on the implementation of the CPSS-IOSCO Principles for Financial Market Infrastructures in respect of CCP||Guidelines and Technical standards||Guidelines & Recommendations||PDF
|These Guidelines and Recommendations concern the implementation of the CPSS-IOSCO Principles for Financial Market Infrastructure (PFMIs) by competent authorities as part of the exercise of their duties resulting from EMIR for the authorisation and supervision of CCPs under Article 22(1) of EMIR.|
|11/07/2014||2014/819||ESMA defines central clearing of interest rate and credit default swaps||Press Releases||Press Release||PDF
|The European Securities and Markets Authority (ESMA) has launched a first round of consultations to prepare for central clearing of OTC derivatives within the European Union. The two consultation papers seek stakeholders’ views on draft regulatory technical standards (RTS) for the clearing of Interest Rate Swaps (IRS) and Credit Default Swaps (CDS) that ESMA has to develop under the European Markets Infrastructure Regulation (EMIR). With the overarching objective of reducing systemic risk, EMIR introduces the obligation to clear certain classes of OTC derivatives in central clearing houses (CCPs) that have been authorised (European CCPs) or recognised (third-country CCPs) under its framework. To ensure that the clearing obligation reduces systemic risk, EMIR specifies a process for the identification of the classes of OTC derivatives that should be subject to mandatory clearing. This includes the assessment of specific criteria that the relevant classes of OTC derivatives have to meet. ESMA is required to draft RTS on the clearing obligation within six months of the authorisation or recognition of CCPs. ESMA has analysed the classes from several CCP notifications and has determined that some IRS and CDS classes should be subject to the clearing obligation. Following the difference in timing of the corresponding CCP authorisations, the IRS and CDS classes are covered in two separate papers and consultation periods, with a large overlap between the two to give the opportunity to stakeholders to review them and provide feedback at the same time. These two consultation papers may be followed by one or more on other asset classes.Basis, fixed-to-float, forward rate agreements and overnight index swaps to be centrally cleared Regarding IRS, ESMA’s draft RTS propose the following four classes, on a range of currencies and underlying indices, to be subject to central clearing: • Basis swaps;• Fixed-to-float interest rate swaps; • Forward rate agreements; and• Overnight index swaps. European untranched index CDS to be centrally cleared Regarding CDS, ESMA’s draft RTS proposes European untranched Index CDS (for two indices) to be subject to central clearing.Draft standards built on swaps already offered for clearing ESMA defined the IRS and CDS classes to be subject to central clearing following an analysis of all IRS and CDS classes which are currently offered for clearing by European CCPs. In addition, for equity and interest rate futures and options which are offered for clearing, ESMA decided that a clearing obligation is not necessary at this stage. Next steps The IRS Consultation Paper is open for feedback until 18 August 2014 and the CDS Consultation Paper until 18 September 2014. ESMA will use the answers received to draft its final RTSs on the clearing obligation for IRS and CDS and send them for endorsement to the European Commission. The clearing obligation will take effect following a phased implementation, with the current proposal ranging from six months to three years after the entry into force of the RTS, depending on the types of counterparties concerned.|
|28/11/2013||2013/1735||ESMA registers ICE TVEL and CME TR as trade repositories||Press Releases||Press Release||PDF
|ESMA registers ICE TVEL and CME TR as trade repositoriesThe European Securities and Markets Authority (ESMA) has approved today the registrations of two further trade repositories (TRs) under the European Market Infrastructure Regulation (EMIR). The following entities have been registered as TRs for the European Union (EU):• ICE Trade Vault Europe Ltd (ICE TVEL), based in the United Kingdom; and• CME Trade Repository Ltd (CME TR), based in the United Kingdom.Trade reporting to start mid-FebruaryTRs are commercial firms that centrally collect and maintain the records of derivatives contracts reported to them. The registration of these two TRs means that they can be used by the counterparties to a derivative transaction to fulfil their trade reporting obligations under EMIR. These registrations will take effect on 5 December 2013. Following the registration of a first group of TRs on 7 November 2013, which became effective on 14 November 2013, the reporting obligation start date for all asset classes will begin on 12 February 2014.Following today’s registrations, there are now six TRs registered in the EU, which can be used for trade reporting. ESMA registered DDRL, Regis-TR, UnaVista and KDPW on 7 November and it has not received any further application for registration. Notes for editors1. EMIR introduced provisions to improve transparency, establish common rules for central counterparties (CCPs) and for trade repositories (TRs) and to reduce the risks associated with the OTC derivatives market. It provides for the obligation to centrally clear OTC derivative contracts or to apply risk mitigation techniques such as the exchange of collateral. It also provides for the direct supervision and the registration of TRs by ESMA as well as the recognition of non-EU TRs.2. The two trade repositories approved by ESMA today are part, or subsidiaries of, bigger groups. More detail on the parental relationships:• ICE Trade Vault Europe Ltd, based in the United Kingdom, is a subsidiary of the IntercontinentalExchange Inc. (ICE), based in the United States;• CME Trade Repository Ltd, based in the United Kingdom, is owned by the Chicago Mercantile Exchange Group (CME), based in the United States.3. For more details on the list of registered TRs and the derivative asset classes which are covered by the registration, please refer to the following list:http://www.esma.europa.eu/page/Registered-Trade-Repositories4. ESMA is an independent EU Authority that works closely with the other European Supervisory Authorities responsible for banking (EBA), and insurance and occupational pensions (EIOPA), and the European Systemic Risk Board (ESRB).5. ESMA’s mission is to enhance the protection of investors and promote stable and well-functioning financial markets in the European Union (EU). As an independent institution, ESMA achieves this aim by building a single rule book for EU financial markets and ensuring its consistent application across the EU. ESMA contributes to the regulation of financial services firms with a pan-European reach, either through direct supervision or through the active co-ordination of national supervisory activity.|
|18/11/2013||2013/1661||ESMA finalises clearing and risk mitigation obligations for non-EU OTC derivatives||Press Releases||Press Release||PDF
|ESMA finalises clearing and risk mitigation obligations for non-EU OTC derivatives The European Securities and Markets Authority (ESMA) has issued final draft regulatory technical standards (RTS) related to derivative transactions by non-European Union (EU) counterparties. The RTS implement provisions of the Regulation on OTC derivatives, central counterparties and trade repositories (EMIR). EMIR provisions regarding central clearing and risk mitigation techniques also apply to those OTC derivatives entered into by two non-EU counterparties which have a direct, substantial and foreseeable impact on EU financial markets. Ensuring that risks posed to the EU’s financial markets by non-EU transactions are addressed by regulation and supervision is key in ensuring safer markets. ESMA’s draft RTS clarify that OTC derivative contracts entered into by two counterparties established in one or more non-EU countries, for which a decision on equivalence of the jurisdiction’s regulatory regime has not been adopted, will be subject to EMIR where one of the following conditions are met: • One of the two non-EU counterparties to the OTC derivative contract is guaranteed by an EU financial for a total gross notional amount of at least €8bn, and for an amount of at least 5% of the OTC derivatives exposures of the EU financial guarantor; or • The two non-EU counterparties execute their transactions via their EU branches and would qualify as financial counterparty if established in the EU. ESMA’s draft RTS will cover OTC derivative contracts concluded after the date the RTS becomes applicable. Non-evasion clause The draft RTS also specify cases of transactions aimed at evading EMIR’s regulatory requirements, which would be the case for derivatives contracts or arrangements concluded without any business substance or economic justification, and in a way to circumvent the clearing obligation and risk mitigation provisions. Next steps ESMA’s draft RTS have been submitted for endorsement to the European Commission on 15 November 2013. The Commission has three months to decide whether to endorse the final draft RTS and must then submit the endorsed RTS to the European Parliament and the Council. Notes for Editors 1. 2013/1657 - Draft technical standards under EMIR on contracts with a direct, substantial and foreseeable effect within the Union and non-evasion. 2. Regulation (EU) No.648/2012 on OTC derivatives, central counterparties and trade repositories. 3. ESMA is an independent EU Authority that was established on 1 January 2011 and works closely with the other European Supervisory Authorities responsible for banking (EBA), and insurance and occupational pensions (EIOPA), and the European Systemic Risk Board (ESRB). 4. ESMA’s mission is to enhance the protection of investors and promote stable and well-functioning financial markets in the European Union (EU). As an independent institution, ESMA achieves this aim by building a single rule book for EU financial markets and ensuring its consistent application across the EU. ESMA contributes to the regulation of financial services firms with a pan-European reach, either through direct supervision or through the active co-ordination of national supervisory activity. Press Release 2013/1661 Final Report 2013/1657|
|07/11/2013||2013/1629||ESMA registers trade repositories||Post Trading, Press Releases||Press Release||PDF
ESMA registers DDRL, KDPW, Regis-TR, and UnaVista as trade repositories The European Securities and Markets Authority (ESMA) has approved today the registrations of the first four trade repositories (TRs) under the European Market Infrastructure Regulation (EMIR). The following entities are registered as TRs for the European Union (EU): DTCC Derivatives Repository Ltd. (DDRL), based in the United Kingdom; Krajowy Depozyt Papierów Wartosciowych S.A. (KDPW), based in Poland; Regis-TR S.A., based in Luxembourg; and UnaVista Ltd, based in the United Kingdom. Steven Maijoor, ESMA Chair, said: “Registering the first European trade repositories is an important component in making derivative markets more transparent and resilient. TRs play a fundamental role in the surveillance of derivatives markets and in risk monitoring. The data gathered by TRs will enable regulators to identify and reduce the risks associated with derivative markets. “ESMA’s TR supervision will ensure more robust market infrastructures and benefit investors, fi-nancial markets and the economy as a whole. Trade reporting to start mid-February TRs are commercial firms that centrally collect and maintain the records of derivatives contracts reported to them. The registration of these TRs means that they can be used by the counterparties to a derivative transaction to fulfil their trade reporting obligations under EMIR. The registrations will take effect on 14 November 2013, with the reporting obligation beginning on 12 February 2014, i.e. 90 calendar days after the official registration date. The registered TRs cover all derivative asset classes –commodities, credit, foreign exchange, equity, interest rates and others – irrespective of whether the contracts are traded on or off exchange. ESMA now assumes supervisory responsibility for the TRs who must continue to comply, on an on-going basis, with the regulatory requirements set out under EMIR. ESMA is currently processing further TR applications. Press release ref. 2013/1629
|12/07/2013||2013/936||ESMA begins detailing central clearing of OTC derivatives||Press Releases||Press Release||PDF
|The European Securities and Markets Authority (ESMA) has launched a Discussion Paper to prepare the regulatory technical standards (RTS) which will implement provisions of the European Markets Infrastructure Regulation (EMIR) regarding the obligation to centrally clear OTC derivatives. The consultation is aimed at assisting ESMA in developing its approach to determining which classes of OTC derivatives need to be centrally cleared and the phase-in periods for the counterparties concerned. EMIR introduced provisions to improve transparency, establish common rules for central counterparties (CCPs) and for trade repositories (TRs) and to reduce the risks associated with the OTC derivatives market. It provides for the obligation to centrally clear OTC derivative contracts or to apply risk mitigation techniques such as the exchange of collateral.|
|25/06/2012||2012/403||ESMA proposes rules on derivatives, central counterparties and trade repositories||Press Releases||Press Release||PDF
|The European Securities and Markets Authority (ESMA) has launched a consultation on its technical standards under the Regulation on OTC derivatives, central counterparties and trade repositories (EMIR), which is aimed at improving the functioning of OTC derivatives markets in the European Union (EU). EMIR aims to achieve this by reducing risks via the use of central clearing and risk mitigation techniques, increasing transparency via trade repositories (TR) and ensuring sound and resilient central counterparties (CCPs).|